Monday, April 15, 2013

Craniomandibular Osteopathy in Dog

What Craniomandibular osteopathy?

Craniomandibular osteopathy or osteoarthropathy is a condition in which abnormal bone growth occurs in the lower jaw bone from a dog, or even an angel Bula mandible and timpani. This growth is not cancerous, and most dogs will recover when they grow up. Without treatment, craniomandibular osteopathy, but can make it difficult or impossible for the dog to eat and care for animals is organized. This condition can be very painful for the dog, and fever can manage it.

Symptoms Craniomandibular osteopathy

Craniomandibular osteopathy first symptoms observed by dog ​​owners that the dog usually looks in pain while eating or chewing. Even puppies can be very reluctant to have oral examination. This often can not be normal for a dog owner to see if there are variations in the jaw.

Craniomandibular osteopathy usually manifests when the puppy is 4-7 months, but symptoms can appear when the dog is not more than 3-4 weeks of age. In some dogs, no symptoms at all until the dog is 10 months.
In most dogs, Craniomandibular osteopathy two-way, but there are exceptions.

Breeds with an increased risk of developing Craniomandibular osteopathy

Craniomandibular osteopathy most common in the West Highland White Terrier, but it happens in many other terriers trah, including Scottish Terriers, Boston Terriers, and Cairn Terriers. It has also been diagnosed in Great Danes, Doberman Pinschers, and Labrador Retriever. It is believed hereditary Bulldogs as well, but more research is needed before anyone can know for sure.

Craniomandibular osteopathy inherited as an autosomal recessive trait medium.

Craniomandibular osteopathy treatment

Craniomandibular osteopathy can be treated with anti-inflammatory drugs, usually cortisone. The most common drugs used to treat craniomandibular osteopathy is Prednisone. If your dog has a very mild case of Craniomandibular osteopathy, give baby aspirin can be enough to take care of the pain. In those cases, your vet may also manages a cortisone injection singles.

Always consult your veterinarian to obtain a diagnosis identifying and discussing the type of anti-inflammatory drugs that are ideal for certain dogs, and how it should be. How much and for how many weeks of medication depends in part on how severe the problems are. In most cases, dogs with Craniomandibular osteopathy should be treated with anti-inflammatory medications for long periods of time, usually 4-10 months.

Because anti-inflammatory drugs often cause troublesome side effects, it is important to find the lowest dose that particular dog.

If you give your dog Prednisone, keep in mind that these drugs cause increased thirst and hunger. Your dog will also need to urinate more frequently.

It is very important to not stop giving your dog an anti-inflammatory effect when you see an improvement, because the symptoms Craniomandibular osteopathy tends to run in cycles of 10-14 days. If you stop treating your dog, symptoms will appear again.

When it is time to wean your dog from cortisone, you need to make a slow and gradual process. Sudden stop is not a good idea. In some situations, you may have to increase the dosage to deal with reoccurring pain and / or fever.

Congenital Vertebral Anomalies in Dog

Congenital vertebral anomalies is the medical term for spine problems is when a puppy is born. A congenital defect or abnormality is characteristic that the puppy was born with, which is a condition that there is at birth. Many hereditary and congenital malformations caused by genetic factors, but they can also be a result of something that happened when the puppy is still in the womb. A pregnant bitch or become infected with certain viral infections, including herpes, can for example produce puppies with congenital malformations. Environmental factors such as poisoning or malnutrition can also cause congenital malformations.

The vertebral term used to describe something related to the spine, which is one of a chain of bones forming the backbone of the dog. Plural form of the vertebrae. A congenital vertebral anomalies as anomalies found in the spinal dog.

Last but not least, the anomaly is a deviation from the normal or common order of things. Anomalies do not always have to be disabled, it's just something that deviates from the norm. An anomaly in the spine but will often cause problems for the dog, because anomalies can make it impossible for the spine works just as it should. A spine anomalies can for example cause spinal cord compression by vertebral canal or causing damage spine stabilized. In some dogs, the number of vertebrae is not true, while the other dogs suffer misshaped vertebrae or spine.

Many different congenital vertebral anomalies have been observed in dogs. Some of the most common examples is Hemivertebrae, Butterfly vertebrae, block vertebrae, spine and Transition.

Hemivertebral in dogs

Hemivertebrae is a problem caused by the lack of reliable blood suppl
y which makes it possible for the bones to form properly. A portion of the spine will not be formed, and the results will be wedge shaped bone that can cause dogs spine angle. Among the many congenital vertebral anomalies identified, hemivertebrae are the most likely to cause neurological problems in dogs. The most common place in the body of this include problem dogs, and when this happens the dog will get screw-shaped tail.

Some dogs trah hemivertebrae are more likely to develop than others, including Pugs, Boston Terriers, and both French and English Bulldogs. Sometimes young Bulldog puppy died hemivertebrae.

Butterfly vertebral in dogs

In normal dogs, notochord subsided for bone development and is still the center of the disk invertebral. In dogs with butterfly vertebrae, the notochord is not properly abated. The result looks like a butterfly when it appears on the x-ray, the spine butterfly names. This anomaly rarely cause any symptoms.

Bulldogs, Boston Terriers, Pugs are more likely to be born with Butterfly vertebrae compared with other purebred dogs.

Restrictions vertebral in dogs

Vertebral block is a condition in which the spine segmentation is not appropriate. Part of the bone, or the entire spine, added together, and this can lead to an angel in a dog butt. In most dogs, the bone block does not cause symptoms.

Canine Hip Dysplasia in Dog

What dog hip dysplasia?

Hip dysplasia is a congenital disease in dogs that causes the acetabulum and the femur head to expand in normal mode. Hip dysplasia is more common in large and heavy people, such as the Saint Bernard dogs, mastiffs and Rotweillers, but can also affect small breeds such as the Cocker Spaniel and the Springer Spaniel. Hip dysplasia is not only seen on pure types, but also happens to crossbreed.

The hip your dog consists of a sort of "ball-in-socket" construction that allows the hip to move and flexible. In dogs suffering from hip dysplasia, a "ball" does not fit well in the socket properly. When the ball does not fit properly, the result is friction which in turn causes damage and can be very painful for the dog. Each time the dog puts weight on the affected joint, joint capsule tension friction. Eventually, this tension will cause permanent damage to the cartilage and inflammatory proteins are produced in the hip.

Hip dysplasia and age

Many dog ​​owners believe that hip dysplasia and other forms of arthritis is only a problem for older dogs, but the reality is that some dogs develop hip dysplasia problems while still in their early youth.

When young dogs develop hip dysplasia, usually form called acute hip dysplasia. Acute hip dysplasia cause severe hip pain for dogs and can cause anything from mild to significant discrepancies. Acute level can last from several weeks to several months.

Chronic level of hip dysplasia can develop in dogs less than one year, but are more common in older dogs. Chronic hip dysplasia is characterized by a gradual decrease of the range-of-motion hip. Just as acute dysplasia, this painful condition for dogs.

Symptoms of hip dysplasia in dogs

A dog with hip dysplasia may show symptoms such as reluctance to climb stairs and jump (eg in the car), difficulties arise when resting, and activity levels generally declined. Some dogs develop hind limb paralysis, gait can be arrogant or bunny-hopping. Dogs will suffer from hip pain or hip. The pain can occur after exercise.

Please note that some dogs do not show or only minimal signs outside hip dysplasia hip dysplasia although they suffer significantly.

Hip dysplasia in dogs treatment

Several different treatments are available for dogs with hip dysplasia. In some dogs, non-surgical treatment can be efficient, at least for a while. Physical therapy and exercise control are two commonly used treatment for dogs with hip dysplasia. If your dog is overweight, weight loss program recommended. Pain medication can also make life more pleasant for dogs with hip dysplasia.

When it comes to surgical treatment, there are two main methods to deal with hip dysplasia in dogs: procedure prophylaxis and therapy procedures. The purpose of the procedure prophylaxis is to prevent the development of rheumatoid, for example by performing a pelvic osteotomy symphysiodesis three or genitals. Therapeutic procedures intended to treat or save an already suffering from arthritis of the hip significantly. You can for example get a dog femoral head ostectomy or complete hip replacement. There is also examined as DARthroplasty the operation.

Skeletal and Muscular Disorders in Dog

Just like humans, dogs can suffer from various disorders of bones and muscles are different, from the light that does not produce symptoms or very significant to decide on a problem that requires extensive treatment. Some bone and muscle disorders can be deadly, especially if not treated.

In order to understand how disorders of bones and muscles work, it is important to first understand the basics of how the system of bones, muscles and nerves work, normal healthy dog. Because dogs are mammals like us humans, we actually have a lot in common when it comes to policies such as configuration framework and how the muscles work.

The dog skeletal system

Rigid framework serves as a protection dog for vital organs such as the heart and lungs. The framework also supports the weight of the dog. Along with that, the fact that the frame is not completely rigid, but is actually quite flexible allowing the dog to run, jump, climb and do all kinds of activities agile.

The bones in your dog composed of collagen, a protein-based fibers. In this protein fiber bases, salts of calcium and phosphorus will deposit to make bones stronger and more rigid. Calcium and phosphorus are the two most important minerals for your dog frame system, but this does NOT mean that you should force feed you tons of dog food or supplements rich in calcium and phosphorus, as too much of a good thing can be just as bad as too little , or at least be totally useless.

In your dog, there are two types of bone: cortical bone and trabecular bone. Cortical bone is very dense type of bone and make 4/5 of the bones in the body. The remaining fifth is trabecular bone, which is also referred to as bone sponge. Trabecular bone found in the cortical bone is strong and protective.

Bone growth in young dogs

As your puppy grows older, will also grow larger, and this means that the bone should grow bigger. Long bones of the body that are specific dog bone compared with others, such as the skull, because they need to grow very rapidly over a relatively short period. This is especially true for large and giant dog breeds. When the long bones in your dog grows, it all begins with the formation of cartilage policy. Once the cartilage has been formed, osifikasi will set in, which is the process by which minerals bind themselves to the cartilage in order to transform into bone cartilage real. Bone for your dog grows, the area where bone growth occurs will be extra sensitive to injury.

Bone repair

When your dog has reached full height of his bones will stop growing again, but this does not mean that they turn into a kind of "dead" part of the dog. Over the life of a dog, his bones will continue to be replaced by new bone is formed. Old bone cells are removed, and new bone cells are formed

More Information Bone and muscle disorders in dogs: 

Canine hip dysplasia
Congenital vertebral anomalies in dogs
Kraniomandibula osteopathy in dogs
Elbow dysplasia in dogs
Hypertrophic Osteodystrophy in dogs
Hypertrophic Osteopathy in dogs
Syndrome Legg-Calve-Perthes in dogs
Luxating patella in dogs
Mastication muscle myositis in dogs
Mastication muscle myositis (MMM) and ekstraokular myositis (EOM) in dogs
Osteoarthritis in dogs
Osteochondritis Dissecans in dogs
Panosteitis in dogs
Spondylosis in dogs

Sunday, April 14, 2013

Leishmaniasis Deseae in Dog

What leishmaniasis?

Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease found throughout the world and Leishmania can affect dogs and humans alike. Was introduced to the North American continent quite recently and a lot of vets who are not familiar with this disease, so it is easy to miss. Leishmaniasis is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania and can only be spread by certain species of sand fly bite. This disease in two forms: skin and visceral Leishmania Leishmania. Both types can affect dogs. Visceral Leishmania far more serious than cutaneous Leishmania, because it means that the parasite has reached the dogs vital organs.

Symptoms of leishmaniasis in dogs

Leishmaniasis are developed slowly in the body of a dog and can take up to seven years from infection to the point when dog owners start to see symptoms of leishmaniasis in dogs. Symptoms are often vague and veterinarians can treat dogs for other more common diseases before realizing that the cause of the problem is leishmaniasis. There are also quite a lot of dogs that seem naturally resistant to parasites - they are infected but they never develop symptoms of leishmaniasis. In endemic areas, up to 90% of the dogs may have a genetic predisposition to not develop any symptoms.

Common symptoms of leishmaniasis in dogs are weakness, fatigue, exercise intolerance, and loss of appetite (often result in weight loss). In some dogs, the symptoms are accompanied by hepatosplenomegaly lymphadenopathy, local or general, and / or fever. Up to 90% of dogs suffer from symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis have both and skin lesions. Cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions are usually dry and the dog will lose hair. Head is usually the first place to show lesions, especially on the nose and pinna. Lesions derived from squirrels cavort also quite common. Finally, leishmaniasis lesions can spread throughout the dog's body.

Articular involvement is not uncommon when it comes to leishmaniasis in dogs, and can cause joint swelling and stiff gait. Other symptoms of leishmaniasis in dogs is chronic diarrhea, deformed and brittle nails, and ocular lesions.

Leishmaniasis treatment for dogs

Unfortunately, leishmaniasis in dogs is difficult to cure. Experts still do not know why, but visceral leishmaniasis much harder to treat in dogs than humans. In many dogs, symptoms appear back as soon as treatment is stopped.

In areas where leishmaniasis is endemic, the most commonly used treatment for dog leishmaniasis is pentavalent combination of allopurinol and Antimonial, such as sodium stibogluconate or meglumine antimonite. If you live in the United States, Pentostam ® (sodium stibogluconate) is currently only available Antimonial drugs. Unfortunately, many of today parasite resistance to the compound above. There is also problematic side effects.

Other treatments may be is Amfoterisin B because these drugs bind sterols and disrupt cell membrane permeability dog. This medicine is unfortunately nefrotoksik, and treatment can not be said to be very effective.

Given parenteral Paramomycin will act synergistically with antimonials (eg meglumine antimonite or sodium stibogluconate), thereby creating a higher level of antimonials in dog body for long periods of time, but also nefrotoksik.

Pentamidin isetionat has proven effective against leishmaniasis in dogs, but you should bring your dog to the vet for a minimum of 15 intramuscular injections. This injection was undoubtedly painful for the dog.

Several types of oral medications are efficient when it comes to just contain the disease, but the costs of long term care can be difficult for many dog ​​owners. Examples of drugs is Itrakonazol, Flukonazol, miconazole, and Ketaconazole. The other problem with the routine use of the drug is prolonged risk of drug resistance.